The New Covenant & The New Kingdom

Introduction. I would like for us this evening to explore Jeremiah 31 considering not only the things that are taught about the New Covenant but how they relate to the promises of the kingdom that is established by the kingship of Christ.

I. New & Old Covenant.

  1. God established a covenant with Israel. (Exodus 19:1-6)
  2. Condition: “If You Obey My voice and Keep My Covenant” - Result: “Special Treasure;” “Kingdom of Priests;” and “Holy Nation.”
  3. If they broke the covenant God would forsake them. (Deuteronomy 31:15-18) Note: God would not break covenant but they would not be His “Special Treasure” or “His Holy Nation”
         We see in the History of Israel these words fulfilled time and time again. These people who were heirs of the covenant would turn from it. (Psalm 78:1-11). As a result...
  4. A New Covenant was promised. (Jeremiah 31:31,32). Because they broke the covenant - God promises a New and Different type of covenant. We will come back to this text later.

II. New & Old Kingdom.

     Remember Exodus 19:6 had spoken of Israel as a “kingdom of Priests” - In the beginning of Israel’s history this referred only to the fact that there was priesthood - i.e. the sons of Aaron. How was this a kingdom? - God was King over them. (I Samuel 8:5-7). They rejected God as their only king. The Law of Moses had pointed to such a time (Deuteronomy 17:14-20). Just as the covenant was something that was dependent upon faithfulness - so was the kingdom.

  1. First king, Saul lost his kingdom. (I Samuel 13:13,14; 15:28).
  2. David’s descendants did not always follow God. (I Kings 15:1-3).
  3. Ultimately because of this unfaithfulness God brought to an end the kingdom of the house of David. (II Kings 24:6, 12, 17 & 25:27-30) Not really a king any more.

III. Concepts Compared.

     Just as there were things in the Old Covenant that promised and pointed to the new, there were things in the Old Kingdom - the “kingdom of Priests” under God’s rule and after the kingdom of David that pointed to something new (Genesis 49:10). Note: “scepter” indicates rule, Judah is the tribe of David and ultimately Jesus - this is referring to Jesus. “Shiloh” Strongs - “He whose it is.”

  1. Daniel during the Babylonian captivity gives some powerful prophecies that promise something new and different. (Daniel 2:31-44; Even Pagan kings stated some facts about this (4:3; 6:26) In prophecies like Nebuchanezzar’s dream (7:14,18). We have seen promises of a New Covenant. We have seen promises of a New Kingdom.

    Old KingdomNew Kingdom
    Reign dependent upon king’s FaithfulnessReign would never End
    Established GeographicallyWould Possess All Other Kingdoms

         Let’s go back to Jeremiah 31:32 “Not According to the covenant...” Brother McLoud pointed this out to us Wednesday Night. How was it different? Note: (Jeremiah 32:33,34).
    - Law in Mind and Written on the heart (vs. 33).
    - “They Shall All Know Me” (vs. 34a).
    - Forgiveness of sins (vs. 34b).

  2. Old Law provided forgiveness - but it did so “on credit” so to speak. It looked ahead to Christ’s payment in blood. (Hebrews 9:11-15).
  3. Israelites were to “know the Lord” but not all who were in the covenant did (I Samuel 2:12). Not so with the New Covenant. By its very definition only those who Know God are a part of the covenant (in truth) (II Peter 1:2-4).
  4. What about this idea of the Law in the mind and heart? Denominational world says that this means it is no longer a matter of following written words. Cf. (John 12:47,48). I thinks instead it is talking about the nature of the covenant - it is determined by personal individual submission to God. I follow the new covenant not because I was born into it but because I serve the Lord in spirit and in truth. Compares this with the New Kingdom. (Luke 17:20,21).

    Old CovenantNew Covenant
    Forgiveness looked aheadForgiveness is provided
    Some did not know GodAll know God
    Established by AncestryEstablished by Rule of
    Christ in the heart

Conclusion. Sometimes we come across those who suggest that the Old Covenant is still binding. In doing so they miss the fact that in Christ we are promised something better. In the same way some often seek a physical kingdom like the kingdom of Saul or David. They fail to realize that in Christ we have a better covenant and a better kingdom. But this kingdom doesn’t come by “observation” this kingdom is within you. (Colosssians 1:13,14)